Comparative cytoarchitectonic analysis of the human and the macaque ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and corticocortical connection patterns in the monkey

Eur J Neurosci. 2002 Jul;16(2):291-310. doi: 10.1046/j.1460-9568.2001.02090.x.


A comparison of the cytoarchitecture of the human and the macaque monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex demonstrated a region in the monkey that exhibits the architectonic characteristic of area 45 in the human brain. This region occupies the dorsal part of the ventrolateral prefrontal convexity just below area 9/46v. Rostroventral to area 45 in the human brain lies a large cortical region labelled as area 47 by Brodmann. The ventrolateral component of this region extending as far as the lateral orbital sulcus has architectonic characteristics similar to those of the ventrolateral prefrontal region labelled by Walker as area 12 in the macaque monkey. We designated this region in both the human and the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex as area 47/12. Thus, area 47/12 designates the specific part of the zone previously labelled as area 47 in the human brain that has the same overall architectonic pattern as that of Walker's area 12 in the macaque monkey brain. The cortical connections of these two areas were examined in the monkey by injecting fluorescent retrograde tracers. Although both area 45 and area 47/12 as defined here had complex multimodal input, they could be differentiated in terms of some of their inputs. Retrograde tracers restricted to area 47/12 resulted in heavy labelling of neurons in the rostral inferotemporal visual association cortex and in temporal limbic areas (i.e. perirhinal and parahippocampal cortex). In contrast, injections of tracers into dorsally adjacent area 45 demonstrated strong labelling in the superior temporal gyrus (i.e. the auditory association cortex) and the multimodal cortex in the upper bank of the superior temporal sulcus.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Animals
  • Brain Mapping
  • Coloring Agents
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Humans
  • Macaca mulatta / anatomy & histology*
  • Macaca mulatta / physiology
  • Male
  • Neural Pathways / physiology*
  • Neurons / cytology*
  • Neurons / physiology*
  • Prefrontal Cortex / cytology*
  • Prefrontal Cortex / physiology*


  • Coloring Agents
  • Fluorescent Dyes