The ulcer protective potential of methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (EOE) was assessed in different acute gastric ulcer models in rats induced by aspirin, ethanol, cold restraint stress and pyloric ligation and healing effect in chronic gastric ulcers induced by acetic acid in rats. EOE, 10-50 mg/kg administered orally, twice daily for 5 days showed dose-dependent ulcer protective effects in all the above acute ulcer models (36.0-98.3% protection, P < 0.2 to P < 0.001) and significant ulcer healing effect in dose of 20 mg/kg after 5 (control ulcer index: 20.2+/-2.3 mm(2)/rat, % healing 59.6%, P < 0.001) and 10 (control UI: 11.0+/-1.7, % healing 65.5%, P < 0.01) days treatment. Further study on gastric mucosal factors showed that it significantly decreased the offensive factors like acid (acid output-control 118.7+/-12.1 microEq/4 h, EOE% decrease 65.9%, P < 0.01) and pepsin (peptic output-control 738.8 micromol/4 h, EOE% decrease 46.2%, P < 0.001) and increased the defensive factors like mucin secretion (TC:P ratio-control 1.21+/-0.15, EOE% increase 95.0%, P < 0.01), cellular mucus (TC:P ratio-control 1.16+/-0.13, EOE% increase 53.4%, P < 0.05) and life span of mucosal cells (DNA content of gastric juice-control 77.3+/-8.7 microg/m per 100 g body weight, EOE% decrease 42.1%, P < 0.05). EOE showed significant antioxidant effect in stressed animals (control UI 35.8+/-2.5, antioxidant status: LPO 0.58+/-0.03 nmol MDA/mg protein, SOD and CAT 227.8+/-6.3 and 18.4+/-1.2 U/mg protein respectively; EOE% decrease in UI 88.2%, mucosal LPO 69.0%, SOD 53.1% and increase in mucosal CAT 59.8%, P < 0.001 respectively) and did not have any effect on cell proliferation in terms of DNA microg/mg protein or glandular weight. The results showed that EOE had significant ulcer protective and healing effects and this might be due to its effects both on offensive and defensive mucosal factors.
Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.