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, 201 (1), 15-29

Development of Pharyngeal Arch Arteries in Early Mouse Embryo

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Development of Pharyngeal Arch Arteries in Early Mouse Embryo

Tamiko Hiruma et al. J Anat.

Abstract

The formation and transformation of the pharyngeal arch arteries in the mouse embryo, from 8.5 to 13 days of gestation (DG), was observed using scanning electron microscopy of vascular casts and graphic reconstruction of 1-microm serial epoxy-resin sections. Late in 8.5-9DG (12 somites), the paired ventral aortae were connected to the dorsal aortae via a loop anterior to the foregut which we call the 'primitive aortic arch', as in the chick embryo. The primitive aortic arch extended cranio-caudally to be transformed into the primitive internal carotid artery, which in turn gave rise to the primitive maxillary artery and the arteries supplying the brain. The second pharyngeal arch artery (PAA) appeared late in 9-9.5DG (16-17 somites), and the ventral aorta bent dorsolaterally to form the first PAA anterior to the first pharyngeal pouch by early in 9.5-10DG (21-23 somites). The third PAA appeared early in 9.5-10DG (21-23 somites), the fourth late in 9.5-10DG (27-29 somites), and the sixth at 10DG (31-34 somites). By 10.5DG (35-39 somites), the first and second PAAs had been transformed into other arteries, and the third, fourth and sixth PAAs had developed well, though the PAA system still exhibited bilateral symmetry. By 13DG, the right sixth PAA had disappeared, and the remaining PAAs formed an aortic-arch system that was almost of the adult type.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
SEM images of vascular casts (A,D) and reconstructed images (B,C,E) of mouse embryos late in 8.5–9DG (12-somite stage, A–C) and early and late in 9–9.5DG (15-, 16-somite stages, D,E). (A) Ventral view. The primitive intra-embryonic arterial system is seen. (B) Ventral view. The outlines of the pre-oral gut and the oropharyngeal membrane are shown by dotted lines. (C) Left-side view of the same embryo as in B. Two branches from the primitive aortic arch extend ventrally and dorsally (arrows). (D) Left-side view. The sprouting indications of the 2nd PAA can just be recognized (arrows). (E) Left-side view. Two branches from the primitive aortic arch run toward the forebrain and midbrain over the optic vesicle (arrows). In all of the reconstructed images in this paper, the vascular system is shown in red, the foregut in yellow, the nervous system in purple, the notochord in green, and heart and body are outlined in light blue. Scale bar = 100 µm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
SEM images of vascular casts (B,C) and reconstructed images (A,D) of mouse embryos in the early (22-somite stage; A), middle (25-somite stage; B) and late (27-somite stage: C; 8-somite stages: D) parts of 9.5–10DG. (A) The arrow indicates the primordium of the 3rd PAA, which appears mesh-like. (B) Three PAAs (I, II, III) are seen, of which the 2nd is the thickest. (C) The cephalic vascular system is well developed. The primordia of the 4th PAA are present between the aortic sac and dorsal aorta (arrows). (D) The 4th PAA is thin, but clearly recognizable. Scale bar = 250 µm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
SEM images of vascular casts (A–C) and reconstructed images (D,E) of mouse embryos at 10DG (32-somite stage: A,B,D,E; 34-somite stage: C). All show right-side views. (A) The interrupted line (top right) indicates the posterior part of the cranial division of the circle of Willis, which was broken during preparation of the cast. (B) The remnants of the ventral aorta and the proximal portion of the 1st PAA (arrow) as well as the dorsal and ventral primordia of the 6th PAA (arrowheads) can be discriminated. (C) The arrow points to the proximal portion of the 2nd PAA, and the arrowhead points to its distal portion. (D) The maxillary prominence (mx) and the mandibular prominence (md) of the first pharyngeal arch are seen. (E) An enlargement of part of D. The relationship of the PAA system and pharyngeal pouches is seen in detail. Scale bar in A and E = 500 µm; B–D = 250 µm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
SEM images of vascular cast of mouse embryo at 11DG (A,C) and 10.5DG (36-somite, B). (A) Left-side view. The hyoid artery, which was broken during preparation of the cast, remains only at its origin. The pulmonary artery branches from the mid-point of the 6th PAA, and the primitive subclavian artery originates from the single dorsal aorta. (B) Right-side view. The very short stem of the primitive external carotid artery is shown adjacent to the basal part of the 3rd PAA. (C) Right dorsal view. The mandibular artery and hyoid artery branch laterally, almost at ** angles, from the primitive internal carotid artery. Scale bar = 500 µm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5
SEM images of vascular casts of mouse embryos at 11.5DG (A) and 12DG (B,C). (A) Left-side view. Origin of the 4th PAA from the aortic sac is separate from that of 6th PAA. The pulmonary arteries originate from the proximal part of the 6th PAA (compare with Fig. 4A). The primitive subclavian artery is given off from the boundary between the paired and single portions of the dorsal aorta. (B) Ventral view. The proximal portion of the aortic sac is divided into the aortic trunk and the pulmonary trunk. The primitive subclavian artery branches from the paired dorsal aorta. (C) Left-side view. A vessel (arrowheads) is seen connecting the mandibular artery and hyoid artery. Scale bar = 500 µm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6
SEM images of vascular casts of mouse embryos at 12.5DG (A) and 13DG (B,C). (A) Ventral view. The right dorsal aorta is slender compared to the left. The stapedial artery is complete. (B) Ventral view. The particularly thin portion of the right dorsal aorta seen in A (arrow) has disappeared. (C) Left-side view. The aortic arch system is quite similar to that seen in the adult. Scale bar = 500 µm.

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