No clear patterns in molecular changes underlying the malignant processes in lung cancer of different histological types have been found so far. To identify critical genes in lung cancer progression we compared the expression profile of cancer related genes in 14 pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients with normal lung tissue by using the cDNA array technique. Principal component analyses (PCA) and permutation test were used to detect the differentially expressed genes. The expression profiles of 10 genes were confirmed by semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR. In tumour samples, as compared to normal lung tissue, the up-regulated genes included such known tumour markers as CCNB1, PLK, tenascin, KRT8, KRT19 and TOP2A. The down-regulated genes included caveolin 1 and 2, and TIMP3. We also describe, for the first time, down-regulation of the interesting SOCS2 and 3, DOC2 and gravin. We show that silencing of SOCS2 is not caused by methylation of exon 1 of the gene. In conclusion, by using the cDNA array technique we were able to reveal marked differences in the gene expression level between normal lung and tumour tissue and find possible new tumour markers for pulmonary adenocarcinoma.