Aim: The loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on tumor suppressor genes is believed to play a key role in carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer. In this study, we analyzed the LOH at 5 loci on the long arm of chromosome 22 in sporadic colorectal cancer to identify additional loci involved in colorectal tumorigenesis.
Methods: Five polymorphic microsatellite markers were analyzed in 83 cases of colorectal and normal DNA by PCR. PCR products were eletrophoresed on an ABI 377 DNA sequencer; Genescan 3.1 and Genotype 2.1 software were used for LOH scanning and analysis. Comparison between LOH frequency and clinicopathological data were performed by chi(2) test. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Results: The average LOH frequency on chromosome 22q was 28.38 %. The region between markers D22S280 and D22S274 (22q12.2-q13.33) exhibited relatively high LOH frequency. The two highest LOH loci with frequencies of 35.09 % and 34.04 % was identified on D22S280 (22q12.2-12.3) and D22S274 (22q13.32-13.33). 8 cases showed LOH at all informative loci, suggesting that one chromosome 22q had been completely lost. On D22S274 locus, LOH frequency of rectal cancer was 50 % (9/18), which was higher than that of proximal colon cancer (12 %, 2/17) (P=0.018). The frequency of distal colon cancer was 42 % (5/12), also higher than that of proximal colon cancer. But there was no statistical significance. Putting both the tumors in distal colon and rectum together into consideration, the frequency, 47 % (14/30), was higher than that of proximal colon cancer (P=0.015),suggesting the mechanism of carcinogenisis was different in both groups.
Conclusions: This study provided evidence for the involvement of putative tumor suppressor genes related to the sporadic colorectal carcinoma on chromosome 22q. The tumor-suppressor-gene(s) might locate on the 22q12.2-12.3 and/or 22q13.32-13.33.