Ligand-dependent activation of breathless FGF receptor gene in Drosophila developing trachea

Mech Dev. 2002 Jun;114(1-2):3-11. doi: 10.1016/s0925-4773(02)00042-4.


Spatially and temporally regulated activity of Branchless/Breathless signaling is essential for trachea development in Drosophila. Early ubiquitous breathless (btl) expression is controlled by binding of Trachealess/Tango heterodimers to the btl minimum enhancer. Branchless/Breathless signaling includes a Sprouty-dependent negative feedback loop. We show that late btl expression is a target of Branchless/Breathless signaling and hence, Branchless/Breathless signaling contains a positive feedback loop, which may guarantee a continuous supply of fresh receptors to membranes of growing tracheal branch cells. Branchless/Breathless signaling activates MAP-kinase, which in turn, activates late btl expression and destabilizes Anterior-open, a repressor for late btl expression. Biochemical and genetic analysis indicated that the minimum btl enhancer includes binding sites of Anterior-open.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Drosophila / embryology*
  • Drosophila Proteins / metabolism
  • Eye Proteins / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Ligands
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Models, Genetic
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutagenesis
  • Plasmids / metabolism
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases*
  • RNA / metabolism
  • Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor / metabolism*
  • Repressor Proteins / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction
  • Trachea / embryology*
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • AOP protein, Drosophila
  • Drosophila Proteins
  • Eye Proteins
  • Ligands
  • Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor
  • Repressor Proteins
  • RNA
  • BTL protein, Drosophila
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases