Understanding the gene-expression patterns during liver regeneration may help to reveal how regenerative processes are initiated and controlled as well as shed new light onto processes that lead to liver disease. Using high-density oligonucleotide arrays, we have examined the gene-expression program in the livers of mice after partial hepatectomy. A time course was constructed for gene expression between 0 and 4 h after partial hepatectomy, corresponding to the priming phase of liver regeneration. The genomic program for liver regeneration involves transcription-factor generation, stress and inflammatory responses, cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix modification, and regulation of cell-cycle entry. The genome-wide changes that are observed provide a detailed and comprehensive map of the initial priming stage of liver regeneration.