The present study investigates whether changes in barometric pressure influence low back pain in patients with vacuum phenomenon within lumbar intervertebral discs. Twenty-four patients with low back pain were examined: 12 with vacuum phenomenon within the intervertebral discs (VP [+] group) and 12 without the vacuum phenomenon (VP [-] group). All patients consented to an evaluation of low back pain in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber. In the VP (+) group, low back pain became more severe in one patient when atmospheric pressure was elevated, and in eight patients when atmospheric pressure was decreased. In the VP (-) group, two patients experienced more severe low back pain when atmospheric pressure was decreased. Our study demonstrated that low back pain might be aggravated by atmosphere depression in patients with lumbar disease associated with the vacuum phenomenon.