Invasive aspergillosis is the most prevalent mould infection. An epidemiological surveillance network was set up in 18 teaching hospitals in Paris and the Greater Paris area. Prospective surveillance was conducted between 1994 and 1999. Between 1994 and 1997 cases were categorized as proven or probable aspergillosis and then the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group criteria were used. The authors analysed 621 cases (115 proven, 506 probable). No seasonal variation was found. Haematological disorders (73%) including stem-cell transplantation (36%), solid-organ transplantations (10%) and AIDS (9%) were the main underlying conditions. The crude mortality was 63%. Incidence of IA was 8% (CI(95): 6.5-9.5) in acute myelocytic leukaemia and 6.3% (CI(95): 4.3-8.3) in acute lymphocytic leukaemia. Incidence was 12.8% (CI(95): 10.8-14.8) following allogeneic stem-cell transplantation and 1.1% (CI(95): 0.7-1.5) following autologous stem-cell transplantation. In solid-organ recipients incidence ranged from 11% following heart-lung transplantation and small bowel to 0.4% following kidney transplantation. Incidence in HIV infected patients ranged from 0.02 to 0.13% per annum. This large series confirmed that patients with haematologic disorders and transplantations are the most at risk for IA.