Mechanical ventilation during long-range aeromedical transport presents significant challenges. Patient, crew member, and equipment are placed in an environment with reduced barometric pressure, noise, vibration, and limited space, oxygen, electrical power, and access to imaging technology. It is the transport team's responsibility to provide care in this environment, which approximates that given in the ICU as closely as possible. This is achieved through careful preparation and planning. Preparation starts with training of the personnel and selection of optimal equipment. Planning needs to consider the patient's physiologic reserve, available supplies of oxygen and electrical power, and the crew's ability to sustain high performance for the duration of the mission.