Given the vulnerabilities of rural residents and the health care issues faced by the Medicaid population generally, the combined effects of being on Medicaid and living in a rural area raise important questions about access to health care services. This study looks at a key dimension of health care access: unmet needfor health care services. The study relies on data from a 1998 survey of rural Minnesota Medicaid beneficiaries. An overall response rate of 70% was obtained. For this study, the sample is limited to women who were on Medicaid for the full 12 months prior to the survey, resulting in 900 respondents. The study finds that the rural Medicaid beneficiaries face high levels of unmet need: more than 1 in 3 reported either delaying or not getting doctor, hospital, or specialist care that theyfelt they needed. Although the study lacks direct measures of the consequences of the high levels of unmet need, there is evidence that greater emergency room use is associated with unmet need. The survey data cannot necessarily be generalized to other rural areas, and like all surveys, this one is subject to nonresponse bias as well as potential biases because of respondent recall and self-assessment of medical needs. Nevertheless, thesefindings are suggestive of negative consequences of unmet need for both Medicaid beneficiaries and program costs.