Aims/hypothesis: Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines controlling the recruitment of leukocytes from the blood by regulating integrin adhesiveness. It has been shown that the migration of CD4+Th1 and CD4+Th2 cells is governed by specific chemokines. Increasing evidence suggests that the CD4+Th1 cheomoattractant chemokine CXCL10, also termed Interferon (IFN)-gamma -inducible protein (IP)-10 is pathogenetically involved in several immunoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
Methods: IFN-gamma and IP-10 were quantified by solid-phase ELISA in sera of patients with either newly diagnosed or long-term Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, and in sera of their healthy first degree relatives. The latter were subdivided into "low" and "high" risk prediabetic subjects depending on whether they were negative or positive for the anti-beta-cell autoantibodies ICA and GAD.
Results: Compared with healthy control subjects (18%, 9/50), those with a low risk of disease (21%, 5/24) and the group of patients with long-term Type I diabetes (24%, 12/50), IP-10 was found more frequently and at increased concentrations in both newly diagnosed Type I diabetic patients (84%, 42/50) and in those with a high risk of disease (73%, 16/22); in the latter, the IP-10 concentrations correlated with those of IFN-gamma.
Conclusion/interpretation: Circulating IP-10 concentrations is increased in patients with Type I diabetes, but only during the early and subclinical stage of the disease.