Root and soil samples of three potted or ground-grown cycads ( Cycas circinalis, C. revoluta, Zamiasp.) were collected between November 1999 and June 2000 and surveyed for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and spore populations. AM fungi were associated with all root systems and rhizosphere samples examined. Root colonization was of a typical Arum type and AM colonization levels differed significantly between species and between potted and ground-grown cycads. Mycorrhizal colonization levels were inversely related to root hair number and length. Spores of nine morphotypes belonging to three genera ( Acaulospora, Glomus, Scutellospora) were extracted from soil. The percentage root length colonized by AM fungi was not related to soil factors, but total AM fungal spore numbers in the rhizosphere soil were inversely related to soil nitrogen and phosphorus levels. AM fungal spore numbers in the soil were linearly related to root length colonized. The co-occurrence of septate non-mycorrhizal fungi was recorded for the first time in cycads. These observations and the relationship between plant mycorrhizal status and soil nutrients are discussed.