For this study, we have determined the effects of neonatal leptin treatment on the evolution of body weight. Experiment 1: pups were divided into two groups: LepF - injected with leptin (8 micro g/100 g of body weight) for the first 10 days of lactation and control (C) - receiving saline. Experiment 2: pups were divided into two groups: LepL - injected with the same leptin concentration of experiment one for the last 10 days of lactation, and C, which received saline. Body weight and food intake were monitored until age 150 days, after which leptin concentrations were measured by ELISA. The LepF group had a significant increase in body weight (p < 0.05) from day 98 onward, in food intake (p < 0.05) from day 74 onward, and higher serum leptin concentration compared to the control (108 %, p < 0.05). The LepL group had a significant increase in body weight (p < 0.05) from day 113 onward, in food intake from day 121 onward (p < 0.001), and higher serum leptin concentration compared to controls (6.9 %, p < 0.05). These results suggest that both periods of lactation constituted a critical window for body weight and food intake programming, but the effects are more marked when the leptin is injected within the first ten days.