Inflammatory bowel disease in children 5 years of age and younger

Am J Gastroenterol. 2002 Aug;97(8):2005-10. doi: 10.1111/j.1572-0241.2002.05915.x.


Objectives: Clinicians are becoming increasingly aware that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can affect all age groups, although it has not been well described in infants and young children. Our aim was to evaluate early onset IBD in patients 5 yr of age and younger.

Methods: Medical records of patients diagnosed with early onset IBD at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia between 1977 and 2000 were reviewed. Patients were divided into three categories: those with Crohn's disease (CD), those with ulcerative colitis (UC), and those with indeterminant colitis (IC).

Results: A total of 82 patients fulfilled the criteria. In 12 patients (15%), the IBD diagnosis was changed during the course of illness. At the end of the follow-up period, linear growth failure was present in 10 of 35 (29%) children with CD, one of 30 (3%) with UC, and three of 17 (18%) with IC. Failure to thrive was a frequent presenting symptom in children with CD (44%) and IC (39%), whereas in all four patients with UC and failure to thrive the diagnosis was subsequently changed to CD or IC. A high proportion of patients with CD had large bowel (89%), and perianal (34%) disease. None of the tested patients were positive for anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody (ASCA), and 10 tested positive for perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (three of five patients with CD, five of seven with UC, and two of three with IC).

Conclusions: Failure to thrive, at the time of presentation, is indicative of a final diagnosis of CD or IC, not UC. Linear growth failure is a common finding in patients with early onset CD. A high proportion of patients with CD have failure to thrive, colonic, and perianal disease. The IBD serology panel is of limited clinical relevance in providing definitive diagnostic information in this pediatric population.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age of Onset
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Disease Progression
  • Failure to Thrive / etiology
  • Female
  • Growth Disorders / etiology
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / complications
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / diagnosis
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Male
  • Retrospective Studies