The efficacy of video feedback for learning the golf swing

J Sports Sci. 2002 Aug;20(8):615-22. doi: 10.1080/026404102320183176.


This study was designed to examine the efficacy of video instruction relative to that of verbal and self-guided instruction. Before training, 30 golfers were assigned at random to one of three groups: video, verbal or self-guided instruction. Video instruction was defined as a practice session in which the teacher was aided by the use of video. Verbal instruction was defined as practising with the teacher providing verbal feedback. Self-guided practice was defined as practising without the aid of a teacher. The participants had a pre-test, four 90 min practice sessions, an immediate post-test and a 2 week delayed post-test. During the pre-test and post-tests, all participants were required to strike 15 golf balls, with a 7-iron, from an artificial turf mat for distance and accuracy. The results showed that all groups were equal on the pre-test. On the first post-test, the two instruction groups performed worse than the self-guided group. However, on the second post-test, the two instruction groups performed better than the self-guided group, with the video group performing best. We interpret these results to mean that video analysis is an effective means of practice, but that the positive effects may take some time to develop.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Evaluation Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Feedback, Psychological
  • Golf / education*
  • Golf / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Knowledge of Results, Psychological
  • Middle Aged
  • Psychomotor Performance / physiology
  • Teaching Materials*
  • Videotape Recording*