Plant morphogenesis is regulated by cell division and expansion. Cytokinesis, the final stage of cell division, culminates in the construction of the cell plate, a unique cytokinetic membranous organelle that is assembled across the inside of the dividing cell. Both during cell-plate formation and cell expansion, the secretory pathway is highly active and is polarized toward the plane of division or toward the plasma membrane, respectively. In this review, we discuss results from recent genetic and biochemical research directed toward understanding the molecular events occurring during cytokinesis and cell expansion, including data supporting the idea that during cytokinesis one or more exocytic pathways are polarized toward the division plane. We will also highlight recent evidence for the roles of secretory vesicle transport and cytoskeletal machinery in cell-plate membrane trafficking and fusion.