Ebola virus encodes seven viral structural and regulatory proteins that support its high rates of replication, but little is known about nucleocapsid assembly of this virus in infected cells. We report here that three viral proteins are necessary and sufficient for formation of Ebola virus particles and that intracellular posttranslational modification regulates this process. Expression of the nucleoprotein (NP) and virion-associated proteins VP35 and VP24 led to spontaneous assembly of nucleocapsids in transfected 293T cells by transmission electron microscopy. A specific biochemical interaction of these three proteins was demonstrated, and, interestingly, O-glycosylation and sialation of NP were demonstrated and necessary for their association. This distinct mechanism of regulation for filovirus assembly suggests new approaches for viral therapies and vaccines for Ebola and related viruses.