This paper highlights contemporary issues in the medical management of prostate cancer. Controversies surrounding adjuvant and neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy in localized prostate cancer are reviewed, as well as the use of chemohormonal therapy in high risk localized disease. The latent period of asymptomatic biochemical progression prior to clinical progression is an opportunity to evaluate new non-toxic therapies. In patients with advanced metastatic disease hormonal therapy and new alternatives are discussed. Chemotherapy in hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) is extensively covered as well as the emerging role of molecular-targeted therapies.