Comparison of urinary bromide levels among people in East Asia, and the effects of dietary intakes of cereals and marine products

Toxicol Lett. 2002 Aug 5;134(1-3):285-93. doi: 10.1016/s0378-4274(02)00192-3.


Groups of people with no occupational exposure to Br-containing chemicals (29-54 year old, mostly women) in Japan, China and Korea, respectively, offered spot urine samples. Those in China and Korea offered 24 h duplicates of foods of the day. Urine samples were analyzed for Br by ECD-gas chromatography (ECD-GC) after derivatization to methyl bromide, and the Br-U was adjusted for a specific gravity of 1.016. Food intake data were based on national statistics and supplemented by the food duplicate data. Mean Br-U was 5.4 and 6.5 mg/l for Japanese men and women, respectively. Mean levels were in a range of 1.8-2.8 mg/l for four groups of Chinese, and 8-12 mg/l for the four groups of women in Korea. Br-U levels among Korean women were close levels reported for occupational exposure to 1- or 2-bromopropane, or methyl bromide. Regression analyses showed that Br-U levels were influenced by the intake of marine products (such as sea algae, sea fish and shellfish) and fruits, and inversely relate to intakes of cereals and potato.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Asia, Eastern
  • Bromides / urine*
  • Diet / classification*
  • Edible Grain / chemistry*
  • Environmental Monitoring / methods
  • Female
  • Food Contamination*
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry / methods
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Seafood / analysis*


  • Bromides