The dormant and durable spore form of Bacillus anthracis is an ideal biological weapon of mass destruction. Once inhaled, spores are transported by alveolar macrophages to lymph nodes surrounding the lungs, where they germinate; subsequent vegetative expansion causes an overwhelming flood of bacteria and toxins into the blood, killing up to 99% of untreated victims. Natural and genetically engineered antibiotic-resistant bacilli amplify the threat of spores being used as weapons, and heighten the need for improved treatments and spore-detection methods after an intentional release. We exploited the inherent binding specificity and lytic action of bacteriophage enzymes called lysins for the rapid detection and killing of B. anthracis. Here we show that the PlyG lysin, isolated from the gamma phage of B. anthracis, specifically kills B. anthracis isolates and other members of the B. anthracis 'cluster' of bacilli in vitro and in vivo. Both vegetative cells and germinating spores are susceptible. The lytic specificity of PlyG was also exploited as part of a rapid method for the identification of B. anthracis. We conclude that PlyG is a tool for the treatment and detection of B. anthracis.