Thyroid disorders in children from birth to adolescence

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2002 Aug:29 Suppl 2:S439-46. doi: 10.1007/s00259-002-0905-3. Epub 2002 Jul 3.

Abstract

Thyroid hormones play a crucial role as a regulator of growth, of nervous system myelination, of metabolism, and of organ functions. Disorders affecting the thyroid gland represent the most common endocrinopathies in childhood. The etiology and clinical presentation of thyroid disorders in children and adolescents substantially differ from that in adults. Thus, pediatric medical care requires an appreciation of distinct characteristics of thyroid function and dysfunction in childhood and adolescence. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent irreversible and permanent nervous system damage and developmental delay, especially in infants as they are extremely vulnerable to thyroid dysfunction. Therefore, as well as reviewing distinct features of disorders with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and normal thyroid function in childhood and adolescence, this article will also focus on important aspects of pre- and postnatal thyroid development and physiology.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Congenital Hypothyroidism
  • Female
  • Goiter / epidemiology
  • Goiter / etiology
  • Graves Disease / epidemiology
  • Graves Disease / etiology
  • Graves Disease / therapy
  • Humans
  • Hyperthyroidism / diagnosis
  • Hyperthyroidism / epidemiology
  • Hyperthyroidism / etiology
  • Hyperthyroidism / therapy
  • Hypothyroidism / diagnosis
  • Hypothyroidism / drug therapy
  • Hypothyroidism / epidemiology
  • Hypothyroidism / etiology
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Iodine / deficiency
  • Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis
  • Thyroid Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Thyroid Diseases / etiology
  • Thyroid Diseases / physiopathology
  • Thyroid Gland / embryology
  • Thyroid Gland / growth & development
  • Thyroid Gland / physiology
  • Thyroid Hormones / blood
  • Thyroid Hormones / deficiency
  • Thyroid Hormones / therapeutic use
  • Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology
  • Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • Thyroid Nodule / epidemiology
  • Thyroidectomy
  • Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / drug therapy
  • Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / epidemiology
  • Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / etiology
  • Thyrotropin / blood

Substances

  • Iodine Radioisotopes
  • Thyroid Hormones
  • Thyrotropin
  • Iodine