Mice lacking the adenosine A1 receptor are anxious and aggressive, but are normal learners with reduced muscle strength and survival rate

Eur J Neurosci. 2002 Aug;16(3):547-50. doi: 10.1046/j.1460-9568.2002.02122.x.


Behavioural assessment of mice lacking adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs) showed reduced activity in some phases of the light-dark cycle, reduced exploratory behaviour in the open-field and in the hole-board, increased anxiety in the plus maze and dark-light box and increased aggressiveness in the resident-intruder test. No differences were found in spatial reference and working memory in several Morris water maze tasks. Both mutant mice had reduced muscle strength and survival rate. These results confirm the involvement of adenosine in motor activity, exploratory behaviour, anxiety and aggressiveness. A1Rs also appear to play a critical role in ageing-related deterioration.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine / metabolism*
  • Aggression / physiology*
  • Animals
  • Anxiety / genetics*
  • Anxiety / metabolism
  • Anxiety / physiopathology
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Brain / physiopathology
  • Brain Chemistry / genetics*
  • Circadian Rhythm / genetics
  • Female
  • Learning / physiology
  • Male
  • Maze Learning / physiology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Motor Activity / genetics
  • Muscle Weakness / genetics*
  • Muscle Weakness / metabolism
  • Muscle Weakness / physiopathology
  • Receptors, Purinergic P1 / deficiency*
  • Receptors, Purinergic P1 / genetics
  • Survival Rate


  • Receptors, Purinergic P1
  • Adenosine