Congenital diaphragmatic hernia in Scandinavia from 1995 to 1998: Predictors of mortality

J Pediatr Surg. 2002 Sep;37(9):1269-75. doi: 10.1053/jpsu.2002.34980.


Background/purpose: There is a lack of large contemporary studies on the management of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), and the prediction of mortality remains difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of perinatal factors on mortality rate in a contemporary multicenter study.

Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective multicenter cohort study. Twelve of 13 Scandinavian pediatric surgical centers participated in the study. During a 4-year period (1995 through 1998) 195 children with CDH were included. The main endpoints were hospital mortality rate and total mortality rate (before 2001). Bivariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier plots, Log-rank test, and Cox regression.

Results: Overall hospital mortality rate was 30%. Among 168 neonates with symptoms within 24 hours (early presenters) 35% died before discharge. All 61 deaths occurred in 157 neonates with symptoms within the first 2 hours of life. Among early presenters, 27% had prenatal ultrasound diagnosis, 26% were delivered by cesarean section, and 21% had associated major malformations. Bivariate analysis of early presenters showed increased risk of death in neonates with prenatal diagnosis, associated anomalies, right-sided diaphragmatic hernia (RCDH), low 1-minute and 5-minute Apgar scores, low birth weight, short gestational age, and cesarean delivery. Neonates with prenatal diagnosis were characterized by significantly lower Apgar scores, lower birth weight, and increased frequency of associated anomalies than those diagnosed after birth. Multivariate analysis found that prenatal diagnosis (P =.004), 1-minute Apgar (P =.001), and RCDH (P =.042) were independent predictors of total mortality rate.

Conclusions: In a series of 195 CDH patients, all 61 deaths occurred in the 157 neonates presenting with symptoms within the first 2 hours of life. Prenatal diagnosis, 1-minute Apgar score, and RCDH were significant independent predictors of total mortality.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Cohort Studies
  • Hernia, Diaphragmatic / mortality
  • Hernia, Diaphragmatic / surgery
  • Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Postoperative Complications / epidemiology
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Scandinavian and Nordic Countries / epidemiology
  • Survival Rate