Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is mainly associated with foodborne infections by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). From January 1997 through December 2000, 394 children with HUS were evaluated in a prospective multicenter surveillance study in Germany and Austria (incidences, 0.7/100,000 and 0.4/100,000 children <15 years old, respectively). Blood leukocytosis was associated with increased detection of STEC in stool cultures (P<.01) and a more severe disease course. Risk of death was associated with cerebral involvement (P<.01). Most strikingly, non-O157:H7 STEC were detected in 43% of stool cultures of patients with HUS: O26 was detected in 15%, sorbitol-fermenting O157:H(-) in 10%, O145 in 9%, O103 in 3%, and O111 in 43%. Patients with O157:H7 serotypes required dialysis for a longer time and had bloody diarrhea detected more frequently, compared with patients with non-O157:H7 serotypes (P<.05). This large study in children with HUS underlines the rising importance of non-O157:H7 serotypes, and, despite increased public awareness, the number of patients remained unchanged.