Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a major regulatory cytokine of inflammatory responses that is considered to play an important role in specific immunotherapy. However, whether IL-10 enhances or inhibits B-cell IgE production has remained a matter of contention. To clarify the effect of IL-10 on IgE synthesis in the presence of IL-4 and CD40 signalling, we examined B-cell proliferation, germline epsilon transcripts and plasma cell differentiation. In addition, the effect of CD27 signalling on IgE synthesis in the presence of IL-10, IL-4 and CD40 signalling was investigated. IL-10 facilitated the production of IgE in mononuclear cells and highly purified B-cells, enhanced B-cell proliferation and, most importantly, promoted the generation of plasma cells. However, IL-10 did not enhance expression of germline epsilon transcripts. The addition of CD27 signalling through the use of CD32-CD27 ligand (CD70) double transfectants significantly diminished the B-cell proliferation, IgE synthesis and plasma cell differentiation enhanced by IL-10. IL-10 enhances B-cell IgE production by promoting differentiation into plasma cells. CD27/CD70 interactions under IL-10 and sufficient CD40 cosignalling exert the opposite effect on IgE synthesis. The results of this study indicate that precautions are critical when planning immunotherapy using IL-10 in IgE-related allergic diseases.