Recent studies have shown that vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism had regulatory effects on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover. The VDR gene has also been indicated as a candidate gene for the susceptibility of osteoporosis. However, it is unclear whether VDR genotypes could be associated with alveolar bone loss of patients with periodontitis, or whether vitamin D receptor gene could be a candidate gene for susceptibility to periodontitis. The purpose of this study was to answer these two questions.
Methods: Twenty-four cases of adult periodontitis (AP), 37 cases of early onset periodontitis (EOP) and 39 healthy controls were recruited for the study. Individual samples of venous blood and DNA were obtained from each subject. Genotypes of the TaqI VDR gene were determined by PCR and TaqI restriction endonuclease digestion.
Results: One out of 24 AP patients, nine out of 37 EOP patients and two out of 39 healthy controls were detected with Tt genotype, while the rest had the TT genotype. The detected frequency of Tt genotype was significantly higher in EOP patients (24.3%) than in AP patients (4.2%) and healthy controls (5.1%). The frequency of t allele was also significantly higher in EOP patients. There was no statistical difference in the distribution of TaqI VDR genotypes between AP patients and healthy controls. The study suggests that Tt genotype might be a risk indicator for the susceptibility to EOP. Carriage of the allele (t) of the TaqI VDR gene may increase the risk of developing EOP.