Genetics of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance: knowledge from human studies

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2002 Sep;57(3):303-11. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2265.2002.01610.x.


Both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and insulin resistance are complex traits in which multiple gene effects and metabolic and environmental factors combine to contribute to the overall pathogenesis of these conditions. This complexity has complicated the search for susceptibility genes and has led to different but complementary approaches being used for the detection of gene effects. These include the study of monogenic cases of insulin resistance and T2DM, association studies of candidate genes and genome-wide scans. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and calpain-10 (CAPN10) genes have recently been identified as T2DM susceptibility genes, and the lessons learnt from these studies are helping to shape future strategies to search for additional susceptibility genes in T2DM and insulin resistance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Calpain / genetics
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / genetics*
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease*
  • Genome
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance / genetics*
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / genetics


  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Transcription Factors
  • Calpain
  • calpain 10