Employing classical two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), amino acid sequencing and immunoblot analysis, we examine for the first time the effect of ozone, a highly notorious environmental pollutant, on rice seedling proteins. Drastic visible necrotic damage to leaf by ozone and consequent increase in ascorbate peroxidase protein(s) was accompanied by rapid changes in the 2-DE protein profiles, over controls. Out of a total of 56 proteins investigated, which were reproducible in repeated experiments, 52 protein spots were visually identified as differentially expressed over controls. Six proteins were N-terminally blocked, and the sequence of 14 proteins could not be determined, whereas 36 proteins were N-terminally and one was internally sequenced. Ozone caused drastic reductions in the major leaf photosynthetic proteins, including the abundantly present ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, and induction of various defense/stress related proteins. Most prominent change in leaves, within 24 h post-treatment with ozone, was the induced accumulation of a pathogenesis related (PR) class 5 protein, three PR 10 class proteins, ascorbate peroxidase(s), superoxide dismutase, calcium-binding protein, calreticulin, a novel ATP-dependent CLP protease, and an unknown protein. Present results demonstrate the highly damaging effect of ozone on rice seedlings at the level of the proteome.