The literature suggests that the following effects on behavior of adult humans may occur when individuals consume moderate amounts of caffeine. (1) Caffeine increases alertness and reduces fatigue. This may be especially important in low arousal situations (e.g. working at night). (2) Caffeine improves performance on vigilance tasks and simple tasks that require sustained response. Again, these effects are often clearest when alertness is reduced, although there is evidence that benefits may still occur when the person is unimpaired. (3) Effects on more complex tasks are difficult to assess and probably involve interactions between the caffeine and other variables which increase alertness (e.g. personality and time of day). (4) In contrast to the effects of caffeine consumption, withdrawal of caffeine has few effects on performance. There is often an increase in negative mood following withdrawal of caffeine, but such effects may largely reflect the expectancies of the volunteers and the failure to conduct "blind" studies. (5) Regular caffeine usage appears to be beneficial, with higher users having better mental functioning. (6) Most people are very good at controlling their caffeine consumption to maximise the above positive effects. For example, the pattern of consumption over the day shows that caffeine is often consumed to increase alertness. Indeed, many people do not consume much caffeine later in the day since it is important not to be alert when one goes to sleep. In contrast to effects found from normal caffeine intake, there are reports that have demonstrated negative effects when very large amounts are given or sensitive groups (e.g. patients with anxiety disorders) were studied. In this context caffeine has been shown to increase anxiety and impair sleep. There is also some evidence that fine motor control may be impaired as a function of the increase in anxiety. Overall, the global picture that emerges depends on whether one focuses on effects that are likely to be present when caffeine is consumed in moderation by the majority of the population or on the effects found in extreme conditions. The evidence clearly shows that levels of caffeine consumed by most people have largely positive effects on behavior. Excessive consumption can lead to problems, especially in sensitive individuals.