Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) is part of a family of proteins whose members are structurally related to epidermal growth factor. NRG-1 induces cell proliferation through a high-affinity receptor complex composed of a heterodimer of human epidermal growth factor-like receptor (HER) 2 and 3. In this study, we show that NRG-1 activates the Janus kinases (JAK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins (STAT). NRG-1 induced a rapid and transient increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of TYK2 and JAK3, but not JAK1 or JAK2, and induced STAT3 and STAT5 tyrosine phosphorylation. Upon phosphorylation, STAT3 translocated to the nucleus within 1 h. Activation of the JAK-STAT pathway was dependent on HER2/HER3 heterodimerization and was necessary for NRG-1-induced proliferation. Inhibition of HER2's ability to dimerize using the HER2-specific antibody 2C4 completely blocked NRG-1-induced JAK3, TYK2, STAT3, and STAT5 tyrosine phosphorylation. Blocking the JAK-STAT pathway with a specific JAK-STAT pathway inhibitor, AG490, inhibited NRG-1-induced JAK and STAT phosphorylation and cell proliferation. These data suggest that NRG-1 activates the JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway through its high-affinity receptor, the HER2/HER3 heterodimer. This pathway plays an important role in NRG-1-stimulated proliferation of pulmonary epithelial cells.