The complete genomic sequence of canine calicivirus (CaCV) isolated from feces of a dog with diarrhea was determined. The CaCV genome, a positive-sense single-stranded RNA, contained 8513 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail and was longer than that of any other calicivirus strain with a completely known sequence. There were three open reading frames (ORF1, nt 12-5801; ORF2, nt 5805-7880; and ORF3, nt 7877-8278). ORF1 encoded a polyprotein (calculated Mr of 214,802) which had the conserved motifs of non-structural proteins of other caliciviruses and picornaviruses. Regions containing characteristic motifs in the non-structural polyprotein of CaCV showed highest similarity with those of the species Feline calicivirus and Vesicular exanthema of swine virus in the genus Vesivirus. Phylogenic analysis indicated that CaCV formed a distinct branch within the genus. Our results strongly suggested that CaCV is a new species in the genus Vesivirus.