We investigated the effects of erythritol on rats with streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetes mellitus. Oral administration of erythritol [100, 200, or 400 mg (kg body weight)(-1) day(-1) for 10 days] to rats with STZ-induced diabetes resulted in significant decreases in the glucose levels of serum, liver, and kidney. Erythritol also reduced the elevated serum 5-hydroxymethylfurfural level that is glycosylated with protein as an indicator of oxidative stress. In addition, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels of serum and liver and kidney mitochondria were dose-dependently lower in the erythritol-treated groups than in the control diabetic group. Furthermore, the serum creatinine level was reduced by oral administration of erythritol in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that erythritol affects glucose metabolism and reduces lipid peroxidation, thereby improving the damage caused by oxidative stress involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes.