Rheumatology is a broad discipline managing a spectrum of different conditions and there are divergences in what is routinely treated by rheumatologists both within and between countries. The free movement of doctors throughout the European Community has lead to moves to harmonize specialist training to ensure common standards of care. The Union Européene des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) has developed recommendations for the specialist training of rheumatologists in Europe that recognizes the broad definition of the discipline and the diversity of clinical practice in Europe. The core curriculum aims to provide a common standard around which to develop locally applicable national curricula. The provision of high quality care requires some assessment of training and competency as well as continuing professional development and ways of ensuring the provision of this throughout the European Community to a mutually high standard are being developed. The future may see more overlap in the training of all the disciplines concerned with the management of those with musculoskeletal conditions to their benefit.