Cyclic nucleotide research -- still expanding after half a century

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2002 Sep;3(9):710-8. doi: 10.1038/nrm911.


Since the discovery in 1957 that cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger for the hormone adrenaline, interest in this molecule and its companion, cyclic GMP, has grown. Over a period of nearly 50 years, research into second messengers has provided a framework for understanding transmembrane signal transduction, receptor-effector coupling, protein-kinase cascades and downregulation of drug responsiveness. The breadth and impact of this work is reflected by five different Nobel prizes.

Publication types

  • Historical Article
  • Portrait

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cyclic AMP / history*
  • Cyclic AMP / metabolism
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein / metabolism
  • Cyclic GMP / history*
  • Cyclic GMP / metabolism
  • History, 20th Century
  • History, 21st Century
  • Humans
  • Nobel Prize
  • Second Messenger Systems*


  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein
  • Cyclic AMP
  • Cyclic GMP