Objectives: To assess the pathology of gastric carcinoma and to determine whether carcinoma of the cardia occurs more often among whites than among other ethnic groups in Hawaii. This study focuses on demographic differences in subsite locations and histologic types of gastric carcinoma.
Methods: We reviewed 532 sequential gastric carcinomas accessioned between 1993 and 1999 in the Hawaii Tumor Registry. Pathology reports and slides were reviewed by the study pathologist.
Results: Carcinoma of the cardia occurred in 51 (15.8%) of 323 males compared with 18 (8.6%) of 209 females (P = 0.02, after age adjustment). The age-adjusted percent of cardia cases was 41.8% for Hawaiian white males compared with 13.4% for men of all other ethnic groups (P = 0.0002). The age-adjusted percent of cardia cases was 22.4% for Hawaiian white females compared with 7.3% for females of other groups. (P = 0.08). At all age levels, females had more frequent diffuse carcinomas and less frequent intestinal type gastric carcinomas than men. The age-adjusted percent with diffuse carcinoma was 35.3% for females and 13.7% for males (P < 0.0001). Also, the sex-adjusted percent with diffuse carcinoma was 26.0% for patients younger than 75 years of age compared with 17.0% for patients 75 years or older (P = 0.01). Conversely, the sex-adjusted percent with intestinal carcinoma was 67.9% for patients younger than 75 years of age compared with 77.1% for patients 75 years or older (P = 0.02). The proportion of cases showing precursor lesions (intestinal metaplasia or superficial gastritis) increased progressively with the distance of the carcinoma from the cardia.
Conclusions: Carcinoma of the cardia is predominantly a tumor of white males and is not associated with the multifocal gastritis characteristically found with carcinoma distal to the cardia. Diffuse gastric carcinoma shows no ethnic predilection, but expression of this phenotype is clearly related to the age and gender of the patient.
Copyright 2002 American Cancer Society.DOI 10.1002/cncr.10734