Naturally occurring antibodies directed against beta-amyloid (Abeta) were detected in intravenous immunoglobulin preparations. After intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in patients with different neurological diseases, total Abeta and Abeta(1-42) in the cerebrospinal fluid was reduced significantly compared with baseline values. In the serum, total Abeta levels increased after intravenous immunoglobulin treatment, whereas no significant change was observed in Abeta(1-42) levels. Antibodies against Abeta were found to be increased in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid after intravenous immunoglobulin treatment. This study provides evidence that intravenous immunoglobulin or purified Abeta antibodies may modify Abeta and Abeta(1-42) levels, suggesting potential utility as a therapy for Alzheimer disease.