The FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) are peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerases and the information gathered in the last 10 years reveals their involvement in diverse biological systems affecting the function and structure of target proteins. Members of the FKBP family were shown to be growth-regulated and participate in signal transduction. In this review we have chosen to focus on a few examples of the mammalian and plant systems in which members of the FKBP family have been demonstrated to affect the function of proteins or development. The technologies that enable production of knockout mice, Arabidopsis mutants and overexpression in transgenic organisms have revealed the contribution of FKBP to development in higher eukaryotes. It appears that members of the FKBP family have conserved some of their basic functions in the animal and plant kingdom, whereas other functions became unique. Studies that will take advantage of the full genome sequence available for Arabidopsis and the human genome, DNA chip technologies and the use of transgenic complementation system will contribute to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism and biological function of FKBPs.