CD4 is a 56-kDa membrane glycoprotein expressed by a subset of T cells, by cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, and by eosinophils and dendritic cells. CD4 serves as a coreceptor for HIV and IL-16. T cell CD4 mediates signal transduction by associating with the protein tyrosine kinase p56(lck); this interaction does not exist in monocytes. We wished to elucidate the mechanism(s) by which monocyte CD4 transduces signals. Stimulation of CD4 on Thp-1 monocytic cells induced a Ca(2+) flux and the time-dependent activation of phosphotyrosine proteins ranging from 35 to 180 kDa. We identified the 140- and 85-kDa proteins as phospholipase C gamma (PLC-gamma) and the regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K), respectively. Using immunoprecipitation/Western immunoblotting however, we were unable to show any direct association between CD4 and PLC-gamma, PI-3K, or other known signaling proteins. To identify proteins capable of associating with the cytoplasmic tail of CD4, we fused it with gluthatione S-transferase and used the fusion protein in far Western and pull-down experiments. In both types of experiments, the fusion protein routinely associated with 45- and 55-kDa proteins. Mass spectrometry analysis of the tryptic peptides generated from these two proteins indicated novel sequences.