Aberrant CpG island methylation of multiple genes in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

Am J Pathol. 2002 Sep;161(3):1015-22. doi: 10.1016/S0002-9440(10)64262-9.


Aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands of human genes has been known as an alternative mechanism of gene inactivation and contributes to the carcinogenesis in many human tumors. We attempted to determine the methylation status of 18 genes, or loci known to be frequently methylated in cancers of other organs, in 79 resected intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas and 15 normal bile duct epithelium by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and correlated the data with clinicopathological findings. Methylation frequencies of the loci tested in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas were 59.5% for 14-3-3sigma,26.6% for APC, 21.5% for E-cadherin, 17.7% for p16, 11.4% for MGMT, 11.4% for THBS1, 8.9% for p14, 8.9% for TIMP3, 7.6% for DAP-kinase,6.3% for GSTP1, 5.1% for COX-2, 50.6% for MINT12, 40.5% for MINT1, 15.4% for MINT25, 35.4% for MINT32, and 1.3% for MINT31. Sixty-two (78.5%) of the 79 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas had methylation in at least one of these loci. Methylation was not detected in normal bile duct samples. There was a significant correlation between methylation and expressional decrease or loss of p16, E-cadherin, and GSTP1 proteins (P = 0.028, P = 0.044, and P < 0.001, respectively). The overall survival was poorer in the patients with CpG island methylation of APC, p16, and TIMP3 than in the patients without methylation (Kaplan-Meier log-rank test, P = 0.0128, 0.0447, and 0.0137, respectively). Age, gender, tumor stage, gross type, histological type, and differentiation had no correlation with methylation status of the specific gene. These results suggest that methylation is a frequent event in cholangiocarcinomas and contributes to the cholangiocarcinogenesis, and that CpG island methylation of APC, p16, or TIMP-3 may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker of the cholangiocarcinomas.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / genetics
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Bile Duct Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Bile Duct Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Bile Duct Neoplasms / mortality
  • Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology*
  • Cholangiocarcinoma / genetics*
  • Cholangiocarcinoma / metabolism
  • Cholangiocarcinoma / mortality
  • CpG Islands / genetics*
  • DNA Methylation*
  • Genes, p16
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Middle Aged
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • Survival Analysis
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3 / genetics


  • Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3