This study sought to investigate the impact of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation searching on women previously diagnosed with breast or ovarian cancer. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 30 women who had undergone a BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation search within the clinical setting. The main reasons reported for undergoing mutation searching were: to provide genetic information for other family members, general altruism, curiosity about the aetiology of cancer, and to provide information to facilitate risk management decisions. In the main, the process of undergoing genetic testing was not experienced as anxiety provoking. The benefit of receiving a result confirming the presence of a genetic mutation was seen as an end to uncertainty, whereas the costs included difficulties in disclosing information to kin and potentially increased anxiety about one's own or others' cancer risks. Women receiving an inconclusive test result reported a range of emotional reactions. There was evidence that some women misunderstood the meaning of this result, interpreting it as definitive confirmation that a cancer-predisposing mutation was not present within the family. It is concluded that women with cancer who participate in BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing need to receive clear information about the meaning and implications of the different types of test results. Some recommendations for clinical practice are discussed.