The role of mitochondria, cytochrome c and caspase-9 in embryonic lens fibre cell denucleation

J Anat. 2002 Aug;201(2):121-35. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-7580.2002.00081.x.


During the differentiation of secondary lens fibre cells from the lens epithelium, the fibre cells lose all of their cytoplasmic organelles as well as their nuclei. The fibre cells, containing crystallins, which confer optical clarity, then persist in the adult lens. The process of denucleation of these cells has been likened to an apoptotic event which is not followed by the plasma membrane changes that are characteristic of apoptosis. We have examined the expression and subcellular translocation of molecules of the apoptotic cascade in differentiating lens epithelial cells in culture. In this culture system, the epithelial cells differentiate into lentoids composed of lens fibre cells. We find that caspase-9, which is expressed and activated before embryonic day 12 in intact lenses, is localized in the cytosol outside mitochondria in non-differentiating cultured cells. In lentoid cells, caspase-9 migrates into mitochondria after the latter undergo a membrane permeability transition that is characteristic of apoptotic cells. At the same time, caspase-9 co-localizes with cytochrome c in the cytosol. The cytochrome c is apparently released from the mitochondria in lentoid cells after the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition and during the period of nuclear shrinkage. Also during this time, the mitochondria aggregate around the degenerating nuclei. Cytochrome c disappears rapidly, while mitochondrial breakdown occurs approximately coincident with the disappearance of the nuclei, but mitochondrial remnants persist together with cytochrome c oxidase, which is a mitochondrial marker protein. Apaf-1, another cytosolic protein of the apoptotic cascade, also migrates to the permeabilized mitochondria and also co-localizes with caspase-9 and cytochrome c in the cytosol or mitochondria of denucleating cells, thus providing evidence for the formation of an 'apoptosome' in these cells, as in apoptotic cells. At no time did we observe the translocation of molecules between cytoplasmic compartments and the nucleus in differentiating lentoid cells. We suggest that the uncoupling of nuclear and membrane apoptotic events in these cells may be due to the early permeability changes in the mitochondria, resulting in the loss of mitochondrial signalling molecules, or to the failure of molecules to migrate to the nucleus in these cells, thus failing to activate nuclear-plasma membrane signalling pathways.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1
  • Blotting, Western / methods
  • Caspase 9
  • Caspases / analysis*
  • Cell Differentiation / physiology
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chick Embryo
  • Cytochrome c Group / analysis*
  • Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Epithelial Cells / cytology
  • Epithelial Cells / enzymology
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Intracellular Membranes / ultrastructure
  • Lens, Crystalline / embryology*
  • Lens, Crystalline / enzymology
  • Microscopy, Confocal
  • Mitochondria / physiology*
  • Permeability
  • Proteins / analysis


  • Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1
  • Cytochrome c Group
  • Proteins
  • Caspase 9
  • Caspases