Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite crystals: a review study on the analytical methods

J Biomed Mater Res. 2002 Dec 15;62(4):600-12. doi: 10.1002/jbm.10280.


For the synthesis of hydroxyapatite crystals from aqueous solutions three preparation methods were employed. From the experimental processes and the characterization of the crystals it was concluded that aging and precipitation kinetics are critical for the purity of the product and its crystallographic characteristics. The authentication details are presented along with the results from infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission and scanning electron photographs, and chemical analysis. Analytical data for several calcium phosphates were collected from the literature, extensively reviewed, and the results were grouped and presented in tables to provide comparison with the data obtained here.

MeSH terms

  • Crystallization
  • Hydroxyapatites / chemical synthesis*
  • Hydroxyapatites / chemistry*
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Phosphates / chemistry
  • Salts / chemistry
  • Solutions
  • Spectrophotometry, Infrared
  • Spectrum Analysis, Raman
  • Water / chemistry
  • X-Ray Diffraction


  • Hydroxyapatites
  • Phosphates
  • Salts
  • Solutions
  • Water