Tree shrews possess an intestinal diverticulum. We investigated this diverticulum with histological and immunohistochemical methods to determine whether this diverticulum was cecum or not. The ratio of the length of diverticulum/small intestine was apparently shorter than that of several primates. In the histological study, mucous membrane of the small intestine was shifted to that of the large intestine at the junction of the diverticulum. Histological features of the diverticulum were similar to those of the large intestine, but the shape of mucousal surface was rather simpler than that of the large intestine. Immunohistochemical study revealed 5-HT positive cells in the bottom of crypts and CD3- and CD 8-positive lymphocytes in lymphoid nodules. These findings suggest that the tree shrew has a cecum with primitive characteristics.