The influence of the nature of the root surface on the demineralization and remineralization processes within artificial fluoride-treated caries lesions was investigated using microscopic and X-ray microanalytical methods. Traces of fluoride were detected in the outer parts (about 25 micrometers) of the lesions after the application of fluorides, and a high mineral content was proved for the same region by means of microanalytical calcium estimation. The location of this mineral-rich band in relation to the root surface was deeper into the root depending on the existence and thickness of a cementum layer. However, within the dentine the location and intensity of the mineral content were unaffected by the cementum. Investigation of artificial caries lesions without fluoride treatment showed the following: The degree of mineralization was kept at a higher level near the root surface in the presence of cementum. Consequently, a cementum layer gives some initial caries resistance of the root surface.