A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay capable of simultaneously amplifying 20 Y chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) markers has been developed to aid human identity testing and male population studies. These markers include all of the Y STRs that make up the "extended haplotype" used in Europe (DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, and YCAII) plus additional polymorphic Y STRs (DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS447, DYS448, DYS388, DYS426, GATA A7.1, and GATA H4). Primers for the markers DYS385, DYS389, and YCAII target duplicated regions of the Y chromosome and thus can provide two polymorphic peaks for each respective primer set. This Y STR 20plex, which utilizes 34 different PCR primers, is the first to include a simultaneous amplification of all the markers within the European "minimal" and "extended" haplotypes. Relative primer positions are compared between the newly developed primers described here and previously published ones. Efforts were made to avoid X chromosome homology in the primer design as well as close packing of PCR product size ranges in order to keep all alleles less than 350 bp through careful examination of known allele ranges. Haplotype comparisons between the 20plex and a commercially available kit found excellent agreement across the 76 samples in the Y chromosome consortium panel.