The influence of gender, exercise, and thermal stress on caffeine pharmacokinetics is unclear. We hypothesized that these factors would not have an effect on the metabolism of caffeine. Eight women participated in four 8-h trials and six men participated in two 8-h trials after the ingestion of 6 mg/kg caffeine. The women performed two resting trials (1 in the follicular phase and 1 in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle) and two exercise trials (90 min of cycling exercise at 65% of maximal O(2) uptake, 1 h after caffeine ingestion) in the follicular phase (1 without and 1 with an additional thermal stress). The men performed one exercise and one resting trial. Menstrual cycle, gender, and exercise, with or without an additional thermal stress, had no effect on the pharmacokinetic measurements or urine caffeine. There was a trend for higher plasma caffeine and lower plasma paraxanthine concentrations in the women. These results confirm that gender, exercise, and thermal stress have no effect on caffeine pharmacokinetics in men and women.