Oceanobacillus iheyensis HTE831 is an alkaliphilic and extremely halotolerant Bacillus-related species isolated from deep-sea sediment. We present here the complete genome sequence of HTE831 along with analyses of genes required for adaptation to highly alkaline and saline environments. The genome consists of 3.6 Mb, encoding many proteins potentially associated with roles in regulation of intracellular osmotic pressure and pH homeostasis. The candidate genes involved in alkaliphily were determined based on comparative analysis with three Bacillus species and two other Gram-positive species. Comparison with the genomes of other major Gram-positive bacterial species suggests that the backbone of the genus Bacillus is composed of approximately 350 genes. This second genome sequence of an alkaliphilic Bacillus-related species will be useful in understanding life in highly alkaline environments and microbial diversity within the ubiquitous bacilli.