2-Dimethylaminoethanol and acetylcholine were iontophoretically tested on deep, spontaneously firing, neurons of the rat cerebral cortex. All identified corticospinal cells and 71% of the unidentified ones were excited by Deanol. Eight percent of the latter group were inhibited. All but one neuron responded similarly to ACh and Deanol, when both substances were tested on the same neuron. Atropine reversibly blocked these responses. The implications of these observations are discussed with regard to cholinergic synapses in the brain and the rationalization of the therapeutic use of Deanol.