Food allergy encompasses a range of disorders that result from adverse immune responses to dietary antigens. This group of conditions includes acute, potentially fatal reactions, and a host of chronic diseases that mainly affect the skin and gastrointestinal tract. Tools for diagnosis and management have not changed much in the past two decades, and include the clinical history, physical examination, tests for specific IgE antibody to suspected foods, elimination diets, oral food challenges, and provision of medications such as epinephrine for emergency treatment. However, much research in the past few years has enhanced our understanding of the clinical, epidemiological, and immunological aspects of these disorders. In this review I will discuss these advances and incorporate them into an improved diagnostic and management scheme. Additionally, emergent diagnostic, treatment, and prevention strategies are reviewed.